The 2018 Nobel Prize Announcements
Every year the Nobel Laureates are announced in October and formally awarded their prizes by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden on December 10 in Stockholm. The Nobel Prize amount for 2018 is 9 million Swedish kronor ($1 million) per full Nobel Prize. The ceremony is followed by a banquet at Stockholm Stadshuset (Stockholm City Hall).

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
James P. Allison from Alice, TX and Tasuku Honjo from Kyoto, Japan won “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Arthur Ashkin, Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou share the prize “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics.”
Arthur Ashkin from New York, NY wins half the prize “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems,” and Gérard Mourou from France shares half the prize with Donna Strickland, a Canadian physicist who is the third female physics laureate ever (and first in 55 years), “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter share the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Frances H. Arnold, from Pittsburgh, PA - the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry - wins “for the directed evolution of enzymes,” and George P. Smith, from Norwalk, CT shares half the prize with Sir Gregory P. Winter, from Cambridge, England “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

The Nobel Prize in Literature is not being awarded this year.

The Nobel Peace Prize 2018
Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege share the Nobel Peace Prize “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.”
Nadia Murad is a survivor of war crimes by the Islamic State (IS) in Iraq; she has shown uncommon courage in speaking on behalf of herself and other victims.
Denis Mukwege, a physician, has devoted his life to defending victims of such war crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He is the foremost, most unifying symbol, both nationally and internationally, of the struggle to end sexual violence in war and armed conflicts. His basic principle is: “Justice is everyone’s business.”
Both Murad and Mukwege have in their own ways helped give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences
The 2018 Riksbank Prize in memory of Alfred Nobel are William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer. They share the prize for designing methods to address some of our time’s most basic and pressing questions about how we create long-term sustained and sustainable economic growth.
Nordhaus, from Albuquerque, NM wins “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis” and Romer, from Denver, CO wins “for integrating technological innovations into long-run acroeconomic analysis.”

More info on the prize and the Nobel Foundation, see www.nobelprize.org