The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The prize was awarded jointly to spouses May-Britt and Edvard Moser from Norway, 51 and 52 respectively, and John O’Keefe from New York, 75, for their work on understanding how the brain locates itself in space using an “inner GPS” made up of place cells and grid cells.

The Nobel Prize in Physics
American Shuji Nakamura teamed with Japanese scientists Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano to create white LED light, revolutionizing the way the world is lighted with a long-lasting and more efficient alternative to older light sources.


The Nobel Prize in Literature
Laureate Patrick Modiano, 69, won the Nobel Prize prize for his books, including "Missing Person," "Out of the Dark" and "The Search Warrant," and specifically for his extensive work on Jewish identity in Europe after World War II and Germany's occupation of France.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
American Eric Betzig, 54, Romanian Stefan W. Hell, 52, and William E. Moerner, 61, of California, have won the Nobel Prize for their development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
Laureate Jean Tirole, 53, of France, is the Nobel Prize in Economics winner for his analysis of market power and regulation.

The Nobel Peace Prize
Pakistan’s Malala Yousafzai and India’s Kailash Satyarthi share this award. At 17, Yousafzai, who was shot by the Taliban in 2012 for campaigning for the right of girls to attend school, becomes the youngest Nobel Peace Prize winner in history. Satyarthi, 60, has for many years been working to abolish child slavery.

For more history of the Nobel Prize and its winners, see: